Shen, X., Qiu, Y. L., Bo, X., Patwardhan, A., Hultman, N., & Dong, B. (2023). "The impact of co-adopting electric vehicles, solar photovoltaics, and battery storage on electricity consumption patterns: Empirical evidence from Arizona." Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 192, 106914.
Abstract: Electric vehicles, residential rooftop solar photovoltaics, and home battery storage contribute to a reliable, resilient, affordable, and clean power grid. To accelerate decarbonization, large-scale deployment of these distributed technologies will be indispensable but cause significant impacts on the power grid in the future. This study provides the first empirical evidence of the impact of co-adopting the three technologies on electricity consumption patterns based on smart meter data of three representative adopters from Arizona. The estimated overall impact of the coadoption on average hourly net load is -0.68 kWh. An intraday consumption transfer is identified. Leveraging the three technologies, consumers reduced electricity consumption from the grid during the day and early evening, increased consumption in the late evening, and exported excess electricity to the grid during the day. We also estimate the decomposed impacts of each adopted technology.